Archive for October, 2008

23
Oct
08

Signal 01 2007

Governments, militaries and businesses worldwide are in the midst of various types of transformations. AFCEA members can be pleased with their own association’s embrace of change. It always is important for an organization such as ours to transform as nations around the globe adjust to the dynamic information age as well as the changing nature of conflict and security amid the Global War on Terrorism. One of the most striking AFCEA changes is taking place at TechNet International. The association’s longtime annual pre-summer show in Washington, D.C., is undergoing a transformation of its own. This year’s iteration will see a new venue and a greater focus on education, training and networking. The event also will offer a reduced emphasis on exhibits. This is not to say that AFCEA is abandoning its focus on technology — far from it. But, our research has shown that in Washington, D.C., as well as in many other world capitals, strategists and government decision makers tend to predominate compared with customers. Technology users and customers often are found outside of national capitals in various locations where budgets actually are executed. In the United States, major AFCEA technology exhibitions can be found in Tampa, Tidewater, San Diego, Honolulu, Colorado Springs, Fort Huachuca, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Fort Gordon and Fort Monmouth, just to name a few. Many of these shows extend their focus beyond that of local customers to include the international community.
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23
Oct
08

Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (1) France and Her Allies

Baden was allied with France in 1805 and in 1806 joined the Confederation of the Rhine, at which time the army consisted of the Gardes du Corps, regiments of light dragoons and hussars, a corps of artillery, and four regiments of infantry, the 1st being the Leibregiment. The infantry was reorganised in 1808 but it is most likely that the new 3rd and 4th Regiments carried the regimental flags of the old regiments of the same number. From 1805-08 each infantry regiment had two flags, a Leibfahne and a Regimenterfahne. Those carried by the Leibregiment are illustrated in Fig 6. The field was red with a yellow Maltese cross over it, separated from the field by a thin gold braid. Ornament was all gold with a red cross beneath the chain, the arms of Baden being Or, a bend Gules. The field for the central cypher on the reverse was light blue, the wreath green with blue ribbons. All crowns had a red inner cap and ermine bottom edge. There is some doubt as to the accuracy of this design, as it is based on a flag repaired some time after 1815, but it does seem logical that the Leibregiment’s flags would be slightly different to those of the other infantry regiments. The other infantry regiments bore flags of a common pattern (see Plate DI) with the regiments identified by various colour differences. Thus the Leibfahnen (carried by the 1st Battalions) were in the regimental colour (red for 2nd, dark blue for 3rd, yellow for 4th) with a white cross overall; the Regimenterfahnen (carried by the 2nd Battalions) were white with crosses in the regimental colour. The 4th Regiment had gold wreaths round the cyphers. The reverse of all flags was exactly the same as the obverse. The Leibfahnen were withdrawn in 1808, except possibly from the 2nd Regiment.
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23
Oct
08

Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (2) Austria, Britain, Prussia & Russia

During the 1804-15 period all flags were painted on silk, embroidery being abandoned in 1766 (1769 for cavalry) and not reintroduced until later in the 19th century. The basic patterns for the 1804-15 period were established in 1781 by the Empcrorjosef II and remained unchanged until 1804. (Leopold II, 1790-92, issued a proclamation on 17 March 1790 informing the War Council that for reasons of economy all flags were to remain unchanged.) The sudden death of Leopold in 1792, with Franz II taking over the regency, resulted in a minor adjustment which created a flag now known as the 1792 pattern, in which the initials FII replaced JII. There was no other change. Although new patterns were authorised in 1804 and 1806, regiments continued to carry their old flags until they were worn out, these older flags frequently being ‘up-dated’ by having alterations painted on the originals. Thus we find that in the 1805 campaign, flags dating back to 1792 were amongst those captured by the French, and it is therefore necessary to start the description of the various patterns with the 1792 one. The 1792 Leibfahne for all regiments was white with a border in the colours of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire: see Plate A1. The reverse is shown by Fig I. The arms on the eagle’s breast are (in the centre) those of Austria, Habsburg and Lorraine, under the Archduke’s coronet, and surrounded by the arms of Hungary Ancient and Modern, Burgundy, Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Lom-bardy, Flanders and Bohemia. Around the shield are the chain and cross of the Order of St Stephan of Hungary and the ribbon and cross of the Order of Maria Theresa. The whole was surmounted by the red and gold crown of Austria. The detail of these arms and their arrangement was subjected to a number of changes during the 1792-1815 period and these are listed under the Ordinarfahne and illustrated by Plates A2 and A3.
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23
Oct
08

The British Army in the Far East 1941-45

From December 1941 to May 1942 the British Empire suffered the most humiliating series of defeats in its history, as Hong Kong, Malaya, Borneo, Singapore and Burma fell in rapid succession to the Imperial Japanese Army. The Fall of Singapore in February 1942 was considered by Winston Churchill ‘the worst and largest capitulation in history’. The Japanese had overrun the numerically superior Commonwealth forces in Malaya in just over two months, resulting in 130,000 troops entering captivity. However, three years later the Japanese Army suffered defeat at the hands of the British and Commonwealth 14th Army at the Battles of Kohima and Imphal and in the battles for Burma. This transformation in the fortunes of the Commonwealth troops, in particular the Indian Army, was in a large part due to the development of jungle warfare doctrine and the resulting improvements in training, tactics and equipment. These campaigns were largely fought in the jungle, an alien environment for most Commonwealth troops. The word ‘jungle’ is Indian in origin and means ‘wasteland’ but it has been used to describe anything from sparsely wooded areas to tropical forest. Until World War II the jungle was usually described as bush or forest in military circles. Generally there were two types of jungle: primary jungle, usually defined as natural jungle growth with poor visibility and little undergrowth, and secondary jungle, which was cleared jungle that had re-grown and consisted of very dense undergrowth, severely limiting movement. The jungle was filled with the problems of difficult climate, terrain, vegetation, wildlife and tropical disease such as malaria. Added to these were the tactical limitations imposed by the jungle, with its limited observation and fields of fire, communication problems, lack of mobility and long lines of supply.
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23
Oct
08

Take-off 07 2006

The first pre-production Su-80GP 30-seat multirole turboprop convertible passenger/transport ait-craft (c/n 01-05) made its maiden flight at the KnAAPO airfield in Komsomolsk-on-Amur at 10.08 Moscow time on 29 June 2006. The 61-minute long maiden flight was carried out by Sukhoi Design Bureau test pilots Yury Vashchuk and Alexey Lilye. The ground control was exercised by Hero of Russia, Sukhoi Design Bureau chief test pilot Igor Votintsev and Chief Designer, Su-80 project manager Gennady Litvinov, while Sukhoi Design Bureau Designer General Mikhail Simonov carried out the overall supervision of the tests. The flight was conducted as scheduled, and the flight crew emphasised good controllability of the new aircraft. As is known, the first Su-80 flight-test prototype (c/n 01-02, registration number RA-82911) has been undergoing flight tests in Zhukovsky outside Moscow since September 2001. Another aircraft (c/n 01-01) underwent a series of static bench tests at the Siberian Aviation Research and Development Institute (SibNIA), and aircraft c/n 01-03 was submitted to the mock-up commission for examination. The development and the first stage of tests resulted in a drastic modification of Ihe aircraft’s design. The fuselage in front of the centre wing section became 1.4 m longer, the tail unit was modified, and a number of improvements were introduced into the aircraft control system and the loading ramp. These modifications were for the first time introduced into prototype c/n 01-04. sent to the SibNIA for another round of bench tests in December 2004, as well as follow-up flight-test prototypes. manufactured by KnAAPO. Aircraft c/n 01-05. which is also the second Su-80 flight-test prototype and the first pre-production prototype, became the first such aircraft.
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23
Oct
08

Jagdgeschwader 51 – ‘Molders’

Many of the early fighter pilots- both Allied and enemy, who survived World War I subsequently went on to serve their countries once again in World War 2. Most of those who chose, and were selected, to remain in the services during the intervening years (which, for the German veterans, would mean first being accepted into the 100,000-man standing army permitted by the post-World War 1 Treaty of Versailles, and then transferring to the covert air arm of the Weimar Republic before the emergence of the Luftwaffe proper in 1935) had risen to high rank and positions of authority, and command, by the outbreak of World War 2. In contrast, the majority of those who had opted, or had been obliged, to return to civilian life in the aftermath of the first conflict, but who then answered their country’s call to arms by rejoining the ranks upon the outbreak of fresh hostilities in September 1939, often fought their second war from behind humbler desks. Very few from either category managed to get back on operations and fly combat missions in both world wars. Fewer still claimed ace status in both conflicts, and were honoured in each with the highest decoration their nation could then bestow. One such, however, was Theodor Osterkamp.
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23
Oct
08

FineScale Modeler 1998 09

The instructions include a brief history, 14 assembly steps, and a Tamiya color list. One problem here: The top color is described as USAF light gray; it should be Light Gull Gray (FS 36440). Parts fit is excellent – sometimes even too snug. The main part of the fuselage is split horizontally with the upper and lower wing panels, while the forward fuselage is split vertically. This seam inside the small vent on top of the turtle deck behind the canopy is difficult to fill. followed the instruction assembly sequence, but left off the stores, landing gear, and canopy until all the painting and decaling were done. The directions to paint gunmetal on the turbine fan on the front of part A33 in step 5 comes too late, as you’ve already painted that part white in step 4 – a reminder to study the plans carefully before beginning. It you choose to told the wings and raise the slats, you must cut a few tabs from the wings. The tail-bumper wheel can be posed down to keep the model on its nose gear.
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